Kidney stones – General information

kidney stones

How do they form?

  1. Dietary changes like over-meat consumption, excess of salt intake, and inadequate water intake are the primary reasons
  2. Genetic predisposition

 What are the common types of stones?

  1. Uric acid stones
  2. Calcium oxalate stones
  3. Infection-related stones

 What are the symptoms of renal stones?

 It depends on the size and location of the stone

 Small stones in the kidneys do not produce any symptoms

  1. When stone size is more than 1cm it may cause some discomfort in the loin area
  2. Stones in ureter (small tube which transports urine from the kidney into the bladder) may obstruct the urine flow and cause severe pain, vomitings, blood in urine, fever etc.
  3. When the stone is in urinary bladder (which stores urine) you may experience burning of urine, blood in urine, urgency, frequent urine episodes or sometimes it may completely block urine ( its an emergency if you can’t pass urine)
kidney stones

How to identify kidney stones?

  1. Symptoms typical of kidney stones like -Pain from loin to groin, vomiting, urinary complaints
  2. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen will give good information
  3. NCCT KUB area is the best modality in identifying stones. It will precisely tell the size and location of the stone.

 How to manage kidney stones?

  1. It depends on various factors like stone size, if it is causing any obstruction to urine passage and other issues like creatinine, WBC counts etc.
  2. Asymptomatic stones can be managed with medications and stone-dissolving syrups
  3. If stones are large and symptomatic various minimally invasive surgical modalities are available to deal with renal stones